From the 16th century onwards, with rapid progress in science, technology and military, Europe has gained economic superiority by seizing trade and sea routes, staring at the wealth of the East through its colonial activities. With the industrial revolution in the 18th century, the West became more powerful and influenced the societies that were lower than themselves in economic and technical terms. It encompassed backward societies in all political, economic, military, cultural and artistic areas with the promise of "modernizing". The Ottoman Empire, lost power against Europe, began to question its own civilization due to the regression experienced and saw the solution in the integration with the Western civilization. Although at the beginning, innovations in the field of military and education aimed at exploiting Europe's science and technology: in progress of time, westernization activities reflected on all social, cultural and artistic fields. Even if all the initiatives undertaken by the Palace leadership have aimed at keeping the Ottomans alive, abandoning traditional institutions of hundreds of years and attempting to bring western-style institutions to their places has not been welcomed by the Ottoman society. In this period, tradition-modernity, old-new, eastern-western discussions gained momentum and public-intelligentsia conflict caused social dualism. This study deals with the reflections of the westernization movements took place in the last periods of the Ottoman Empire in the cultural and artistic areas. It assesses the influence of the tradition-modern conflict, which has been carried as a problem from that time to today, on art through modernist and traditional approaches.
Keywords: Art, Tradition, Modernism, Westernization, Tanzimat